Imyaka 500 y’Amavugururwa y’itorero ku isi mu mboni ya Pastor Joseph Nyamutera! Ni iki twakwitaho nyuma y’imyaka 500 aya mavugururwa abaye?

0
209

 

Ndabanza kwisegura ku basomyi nshimangira ko iyi nyandiko nta mugambi ifite yo guserereza uwari we wese, ni umusanzu wanjye muri iki gihe ibihugu byose byibuka 500 aya mavugururwa abayeho. Si byiza ko abantu babura ubutumwa bw’ingenzi, n’ umurage nyawo aya mavugururwa yadusigiye.

Mbere yuko tuvuga kuri aya mavugururwa (Reformation), wakwibaza impamvu abantu bajya gucukumbura amateka y’itorero, wibaza niba hari agakiza karimo. `Hari abavuga ngo Bibliya irahagije kutwereka inzira itugeza mu bugingo buhoraho. Nibyo, ariko na Bibliya yanditswe mu buryo Isezerano rya kera ridufasha kumva Isezerano rishya. Ikindi nuko hari ibyo Yesu yavuze mu buzima bwe, nko kurimbuka kw’I Yerusalemu, n’urupfu rubi intumwa zizapfa, uzumva byigishwa mu nsengero ariko bikuwe mu bitabo by’amateka bigatuma tumenya ko iyo Yesu yavuze byari ukuri, kandi n’ubutwari bw’abapfuye banze kwihakana Yesu bikatwongerera imbaraga mu kwizera. Kugira ngo usobanukirwa imyitrwarire y’amatorero amwe, ujya mu bihugu yaturutsemo ukiga amateka yabyo n’imiterere, bigatuma utahura impamvu. Hari amatorero nsura yiyomoye ku yandi afite ibyo bapfa, ariko bimwe mubyo bagayaga aho bavuye ukobona ko byabakurikiranye.

Nkuko mu gihugu abantu biga amateka bagakuramo amasomo, abizera bagombye kwiga amateka bakavanamo amasomo afasha mu buzima bw’Umwuka, mu miyoborere, mu bikorwa by’ amatorero mbonereho no kurarika abayobora amatorero batize ishuri rya Bibliya kugana Rabagirana Bible College  in Masaka muri certificate cyangwa degree, kuko hari byinshi badafite kandi biri ngombwa mu murimo bakora. Nk’ubu wakubaza uko ubukristo bwatangiriye muri Palestina, bigera mu kinyejana cya 3 bwimukiye I Roma, wasubiza iki? Niba mwalimu yiga ngo yigishe, muganga akabyigira ngo avure, ni gute umuntu aramuka yiyemeje gushinga itorero no kuyobora abantu atarabyigiye?  Ngaruke ku mavugururwa:

Aya mavugurwa yabayeho mu mwaka wa 1500-1600, yatangijwe na Martini Luteri, umupadiri w’umudage, wagize umwanya wo gusoma Bibliya bihagije, aza kubabazwa n’amakosa yigishwaga, akanakorwa na Kiliziya Gatolika yasengeragamo.  Turamushimira ko atahise asohoka nkuko bamwe bagenza ahubwo yagerageje gukosora ibyakorwaga, nubwo nyuma byanze abona gusohoka. Ibyo kudasohoka abisangiye n’abari mu bubyutse bwa East African Revival bwatangiriye I Gahini muri Anglikani. Nyuma yo kujya impaka kubyo yitaga gutandukira bikananirana, yandika ingingo 95 (theses) ku muryango wa Cathedral ya Witternberg, aho yari umwarimu wa Teologiya, harimo ibyateje  bamwe kwigumura kuri Kiliziya kandi icyo gihe byabaga ari icyaha gikomeye.  Kiliziya yafatanyije n’inzego z’ubutegetsi bakoranaga bya hafi kumucubya no kumuhiga biba iby’ubusa.

Luteri yaje gutumirwa mu nama ikomeye ya Kiliziya ngo avuguruze inyandiko zose yakwirakwizaga zibangamiye amahame ya Kiliziya arabyanga, ahigwa bukware ahishwa na bamwe mu bakomeye bashyigikiye ibyo yigishaga. Yahise asemura ibitabo byo mw’isezerano rishya kuva mu kilatini abishyira mu kidage, ashishikariza rubanda gusoma Bibliya no kwitahurira ukuri kubyo bigishwaga mu misa. Igice kimwe cy’ubudge cyaje kumuyoboka, kiyomoye kuri kiliziya, cyaje kwitwa aba-Luteriyani, abandi babita abahakanyi/cyangwa ibyigomeke (Protestanti).

Nyuma hari abandi nka Kalvini (Calvin) umufaransa wazanye izindi mpinduka yahungiye mu myizerere ashimangira ko ibiba ku muntu Imana iba yarabigenye (Predestination). Yahungiye mu busuwisi ari naho inyigisho ze zagize imbaraga. Hari ba Zwingli n’abandi batamenyekanye nabo bazanye indi nyongera. Abandi bahagurutse nyuma, kubera babatizaga mu mazi menshi biswe Ana-Baptists (abongera kubatiza). Menno ni umwe muri bo watangije itsinda ry’aba-menonite bafite umwihariko wo kwanga intambara n’uyu munsi bazwi cyane muri Amerika. Aba twita abagorozi bose bahuye n’itotezwa rikomeye bituma ibyo bikurura abayoboke benshi cyane muri rubanda rwari rwaragenganye, rubihiwe n’ubusongalele bwa bamwe ma bayobozi ba Kiliziya b’icyo gihe.

Hari ibyariho byatumye aya mavugururwa ashoboka. Cyari igihe cyiswe icyo kumurikirwa (renaissance) byaranzwe no kwaguka kw’ibitekerezo bituma abantu batangira kwibaza ku byitwaga ukuri (dogma) no kutemera kugenda butama bakurikiye ibitekerezo by’abandi. Ibi byatumye bahangara Kiliziya nubwo yari ifite imbaraga zo kwica no gukira. Icya kabiri, hari igihe cyo kuvumbura ibindi bice bigize umubume w’isi, byatumaga umuntu yemera kuba igicibwa kuko yumvaga ko mu gihugu cye abaye ruvumwa ashobora gushakira. Icya nyuma gikomeye, cyari igihe Guttemberg yashinze icapiro rya mbere ryatumye abagorozi bacapa inyandiko nyinshi, harimo na Bibliya isemuwe byatumye abantu badacungira gusa kubyo abayobozi ba Kiliziya bigishaga.

Muri kiliziya hari hadutse ‘ubucuruzi bw’imbabazi’ (vente des indulgences) ari nabyo byabaye imbarutso ikomeye yo kwivumbura kwa benshi. Umuyobozi wa Kiliziya yatangije iyo gahunda agamije kuvugura urusengero (Cathdral) y’I Roma, yemeza ko umuntu atanze amafranga menshi, ashobora kubona imbabazi z’ibibi yakoze n’ibyo azakora. Byaje kugera naho umuntu asabwa no gutangira abapfuye amafranga menshi bityo bakaba bahabwa imbabazi bakimurirwa aheza. Ibi byateye benshi mu buyobozi ba kiliziya gukira byihuse, bamwe badukana ingeso mbi zijyana n’umurengwe birimo kwishongora ku bakene, ubusambanyi n’iraha, kugira ubuzima buhanitse butagaragaza kwicisha bugufi tubona ku Muyobozi wacu mukuru ariwe Yesu Kristo (Abafilipi 2:3-5).

Ibi n’ibikererezo bimwe bikubiye muri ayo mavugururwa. Usomye za ngingo 95 Luteri yamanitse, nagerageje kuzikusanya mu bice 4 na none nirinda kugira uwo nserereza:

  1. Guhakana umwanya ukomeye abayobozi ba Kiliziya nk’abahuza b’abantu n’Imana, aribyo aba-Protestanti uyu munsi bavuga ko bemera ‘Ubutambyi rusange’ (I Petero 2:9-10). Bivuga ko umwizera wese ashobora gusaba Imana imbabazi akababarirwa ibyaha. Ntakeneye icyemeza cy’ umuyobozi w’idini cyemeza ko yababariwe. Luteri yemeraga ko urufunguzo Yesu yavugaga igihe yabwira Petero ngo ‘nzaguha imfunguzo z’ubwami bwo mw’ijuru, kandi icyo uzahambira mw’isi kizaba kihambiwe mw’ijuru…..’ (Matayo 16:19), rwahawe itorero muri rusange, ntirwahwe Petero n’abaje kwitwa abasigire be.

 

  1. Guhakana bimwe mu byigishwaga bitari mw’Ijambo ry’Imana no Guha agaciro Ijambo ry’Imana kurusha ibindi byose bivugwa n’abayobozi bakuru ba Kilizia (II Timoteo 3:15-16). Luteri yari afite ikibazo ko ukwizera kwaje kubakira kuri Bibliya hakongerwaho n’amahame n’imigenzo (traditions).

 

  1. Guhakana agakiza gaturuka ku mirimo: Luteri yahamyaga ko Bibliya yigisha ko twakijijwe n’ubuntu ku bwo kwizera (Abefeso 2:8). Imirimo ni nbombwa ariko ni iyerekana impinduka yabaye mu mutima. Aha yashaka Kumara impungenge abibazaga ko baretse gutanga no gukora ibyo Kiliziya ibasaba bazahura n’uburakari bw’Imana.

 

  1. Kwamagana ko kiliziya ikoresha imbaraga za leta n’ibindi bihano mu kugumisha abakristo ku murongo wayo: Luteri yifuzaga ko abayobozi ba Kiliiziya bakoresha impuguro no kwigisha no kumvikanisha ukuri II Timoteo 4:1.

Umusaruro wavuye mu mavugururwa ni uko abantu bahawe Bibliya mu rurimi bumva kandi bagafashwa kwisobnurira. Uko abatotezwaga bahungaga, bajyanye ubutumwa bwiza ku yindi migabane. Amavugururwa yatumye abantu bahimba bagakoresha indirimbo rusange zikubiyemo imyizerere (doctrines) nkuko turirimba izo mu gitabo. Na Kiliziya ubwayo byayigiriye umumaro kuko yatangiye kwivugurura kugira ngo abantu badakomeza kuyishiraho (counter-reformation).

Twakwemeza ko ibyo bihe by’amavugurura byaranzwe n’amakosa menshi kuko bamwe mu bagorozi nabo batangiye kurenganya abatemera ibyabo mu duce babaga bashyigikiwe. Ntibafatanije ahubwo batangiye kurwanyana bamwe bashingira ku matandukaniro mato (urugero: Ukaristiya ni umubiri wa Kristo cyangwa n’ikimenyesto cy’umubiri wa Kristo?), kugeza ubwo bahindutse amadini menshi atemerana.

Nkuko bivugwa ko abantu batigira ku mateka, kandi ko inkoni ikubise mukeba uyirenze urugo, uyu munsi ubona ibiriho mu matorero n’amadini bihamagara andi mavugururwa (Reformation). Itumanaho ryihuse rya internet risa naho ryasimbuye icapiro ryatumye abantu bamenya ibintu byinshi birenze ibyo babwirwa mu materaniro. Ibi mbivuga ko matorero y’aba-Protestanti ubwabo. Abakristo benshi bafite ibibazo kubyo bagiye bigishwa imyaka yose, ubu bakaba babigereranya n’ibyo bumvira ku ma radio, televiziyo cyangwa imbuga nkoranyambaga.

Imipaka y’amadini yagiye ihirimo aho usanga mu bigo bya leta n’amashuri, abanyeshuri bo mu matorero atandukanye basengana bagasa naho bahimbye ‘imyizerere’ ivangavanze amatorero yabo atakigenzura.

Ibyo Luteri yarwanyaga byarashibutse mu matorero y’aba-Protestanti menshi. Ahenshi usanga abapasitori, bishops, intumwa barongeye kwirundaho ububasha nkaho umuntu atagera ku Mana atabanyuzeho. Hari abahanuzi bihaye kwerekana ko Imana ibumva kurusha abandi, wagira ngo nibo bafite urufunguzo rw’imigisha, amavuta yo gusengera abantu bakabona ubutunzi kandi ibyo bakabikora bagwiza imitungo, amamodoka ahenze n’imibereho iri hejuru cyane (ubusongalele). Nta gitangaza ko usanga ibinyamakuru byuzuye amakuru y’urukozasoni z’ibyo bamwe muri abo bayobozi bakora iyo bamaze guhaga.

Bamwe batandukana n’abagore babo bakinjira abandi, abandi basigaye bikubira agatama bakaborerwa, hari abirirwa bazenguruka isi kubera ko bifite, hari abarwanyana, basebanya n’ibindi. Ijambo ry’Imana ntirihabwa agaciro ahubwo abantu bararigoreka bigisha ibitekerezo by’abantu, abandi amahame n’imigenzo (tradions), ibyo ba Apotre babo bavuga, amayerekwa n’ubuhanuzi nibyo bashyira imbere nubwo byaba bivuguruza Bibliya. Agakiza gaturuka ku mirimo niko bamwe bigisha no ma ba-Protestanti cyane iyo bashaka imitungo mu bakristo. Hari aberekana ko Imana imeze nka sosiyete y’ubwishingizi cyangwa y’abacunga umutekano, ko iyo udatanze agatubutse nta mugisha, nta no kurindwa n’Imana. Abantu baracyifashisha inshuti zikomeye mu guhanagana n’abandi no kugera kubyo bashaka.

Amavuguruwa akenewe atandukanye cyane n’aya ba Luteri ahubwo hakenewe impinduka mu matorero aho abantu bashishikazwa no kwihana by’ukuri, kwicisha bugufi (servant leadership) no kubaha Imana kurusha gushaka gushimisha abantu, kugendera mu gukiranuka, gukorera Imana nkaho ariyo boss mukuru, no kwita ku bakene n’abababaye no gushakira ibisubizo ibibazo byugarije isi (Integral mission) kandi tukagumana umutima unyotewe kubana n’Imana iteka ryose (finality).

Turizera kubabona muri Rabagirana Bible College very soon!

Pastor Nyamutera Joseph (Rabagirana Ministries)